“Oil has been an important factor in economic security for many of these countries,” David Waskow of the World Resources Institute think tank in Washington told CHN, highlighting the common interests of OPEC countries and the United States, the world`s largest oil producer. These transparency and accountability provisions are similar to those in other international agreements. While the system does not include financial sanctions, the requirements are intended to easily track each nation`s progress and foster a sense of global peer pressure, which discourages any hesitation between countries that might consider doing so. The agreement contains commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to step up their commitments over time. The agreement provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their mitigation and adaptation efforts, while providing a framework for transparent monitoring and reporting on countries` climate goals. NDCs become NDCs – Nationally Determined Contributions – once a country formally joins the agreement. There are no specific requirements on how countries should reduce their emissions or to what extent, but there have been political expectations about the nature and severity of individual countries` targets. As a result, national plans vary considerably in scope and ambition, largely reflecting each country`s capacities, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has pledged to level its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reduce CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60 to 65 percent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil sources. While the Paris Agreement ultimately aims to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius this century, numerous studies evaluating each country`s voluntary commitments in Paris show that the cumulative effect of these emission reductions will not be large enough to keep temperatures below this ceiling. In fact, the targets set by countries should limit the future temperature rise to 2.7 to 3.7 degrees Celsius. Current assessments of countries` performance under their Paris climate goals show that some countries are already failing to meet their commitments. The IPCC notes that climate change is limited only by “substantial and sustainable reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.” While one can debate the benefits of using a single global temperature threshold to represent dangerous climate change, the general scientific opinion is that any increase in global temperatures of more than 2 degrees Celsius would be an unacceptable risk – potentially leading to mass extinctions, more severe droughts and hurricanes, and an aqueous Arctic. Moreover, as the IPCC notes, while it remains uncertain about the extent of global warming that will trigger “abrupt and irreversible changes” in Earth`s systems, the risk of crossing the threshold only increases as temperatures rise. .